Newman?蒺s the Idea of a University and Its Reflection on Debureau?鄄cratization of Modern Chinese Hig

【中圖分类号】H31【文献标识码】A 【文章编号】2095-3089(2018)17-0090-01

Introduction: Newman?蒺s The Idea of a University is the first work to explore liberal education systematically and completely. The paper discusses Newman?蒺s ideas of the Ideal of a University from the perspective of university autonomy and being free from interference of religious authority to gain inspirations for challenges to liberal education of Chinese higher educational institutions.

John Henry Cardinal Newman (1801-1890) was one of the most influential authors of the nineteenth century. During his years as rector, he delivered and published a series of lectures titled The Idea of a University which remains a classic work on university education.In his lectures, one of Newman?蒺s most important claims is that the Idea of a University is to be determined without recourse to the authority of the Church, or any authority at all.

In modern China, how to immunize universities from authority interference to achieve intellectual autonomy becomes one of the biggest challenge for Chinese higher educational institutes.

For Newman, the ideal university is a community of thinkers, engaging in intellectual pursuits not for any external purpose. In order to achieve this liberal education, the university had to preserve its intellectual autonomy so that he holds the view that universities should be entirely free of religious interference, putting forward a secular, pluralist and inclusive ideal.

John Henry Newmans the Idea of a University was written in the 19th century when the universities then were bearing little resemblance to any modern university. However, his ideas can still inspire Chinese universities and has contemporary value on Chinese higher education institutions.

Today the problem of interference of church authorities in 19th century of Britain is replaced by the interference of government authorities which define the higher education system and hinder universities substantially from owning autonomy in China.

The higher educational system in China is highly affected by its administrative system. The undue bureaucratization and unnecessary administrative intervention have become a major factor constraining the development and reform of higher education. The fact is currently all Chinese public universities are assigned an administrative rank which judge or evaluate how good or prestigious a university is; University officials are managed by the Party. They are first and foremost bureaucrats rather than educators. They are appointed, promoted, and even evaluated as bureaucrats; Chinas universities are similar to government departments in terms of institutional layout and personnel system.

The bureaucratization and administrative power in Chinese universities have gone far beyond their spectra and started influencing academic affairs by allocating resources and appointing the personnel of universities. Academic professionals have much disadvantages when competing with their administrative colleagues and they have to take administrative positions to get better pay and greater resources.

The bureaucratization has been singled out as the root cause of major problems in Chinas higher educational system. Many scholars and professors think that there are not first?鄄class universities in China is because its higher educational system does not give universities enough autonomy so that universities are lack of academic, intellectual and moral spirit.

How to immunize universities from political interference, how to win more university autonomy and the academic freedom become substantially important for Chinese higher education institutions now. Scholars and scientists should be free to pursue the truth, and to teach and publish their findings without political interference, and the professions do not have to sacrifice their freedom of conscience or intellectual integrity only if the barriers against the operation of political forces can be dismantled. Universities should enjoy autonomy, governing their own affairs internally and making their own decisions on academic matters, for autonomy was the best way to protect liberty and diversity in a pluralist civil society. Universities can do their work best and they can be most useful to society when they are isolated from external pressures. Only if government stop undermining university autonomy which could make first?鄄class Chinese universities possible.



《Newman?蒺s the Idea of a University and Its Reflection on Debureau?鄄cratization of Modern Chinese Higher Educational Institutions》原文作者:【中圖分类号】H31【文献标识码】A 【文章编号】2095-3089(2018)17-0090-01,该学术论文发表于:课程教育研究 2018年16期